Health management of the elderly
With the growth of age, the physiological function of the heart, brain, kidney and other organs of the elderly has declined, the metabolic function is disordered, the immunity is low, and they are prone to various chronic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease and tumors. The disability rate and mortality rate of these diseases are very high. Health management services can early detect diseases, and early treatment can prevent the occurrence and development of diseases, reduce complications, and reduce the disability rate and mortality rate. Health management services will be provided to the elderly once a year, and the life and diet of the elderly will be investigated in order to carry out the health management services. The elderly who are 65 or above and live in the community for more than half a year can enjoy the health management services for the elderly in local township hospitals and other places.
1. Target population
The object of health management services for the elderly refers to the elderly over 60 years old, including 60 years old. The elderly who have lived in Jinshitan for more than half a year, regardless of registered residence registration and non registered residence registration, can enjoy the elderly health management services in the community health service center (station).
2. Service content
Health management services are provided to the elderly once a year. The contents include:
(1) Lifestyle and health assessment. Through inquiry, understand the basic health status, self-care ability, smoking, drinking, diet, physical exercise and other lifestyle of the elderly, as well as the common symptoms and treatment of past diseases and current chronic diseases.
(2) Conduct a comprehensive physical examination every year, including general physical examination and auxiliary examination.
(3) Inform myself or his/her family members of the results of physical examination and provide targeted health guidance, and include patients with confirmed primary hypertension and type 2 diabetes into the corresponding health management of patients with chronic diseases.
(4) Inform the next physical examination time.
3 Inspection contents
(1) The general physical examination includes the measurement of body temperature, pulse, blood pressure, height, weight, skin, superficial lymph nodes, heart, lungs, abdomen and other routine examinations, and the rough judgment of vision, hearing and movement.
(2) Auxiliary examinations include blood routine, urine routine, fasting blood glucose, blood lipids, liver function (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase and total bilirubin), renal function (serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen), and ECG detection.
4 Significance of main projects
Blood routine and urine routine
The digestion and absorption function of the elderly is weakened, and the immunity is reduced. Anemia, infection and other blood abnormalities are found early through the blood routine examination department. Through routine urine examination, diseases such as nephritis, urinary tract infection and so on can be found early, and important clues can also be provided for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of other diseases, such as gout and hepatitis. At the same time, routine blood and urine tests are simple and easy to carry out. Therefore, routine blood and urine tests should be carried out for the elderly during physical examination.
Liver function, renal function
With the growth of age, the liver and kidney function gradually decreased; And the elderly are prone to a variety of chronic diseases, such as hypertension, diabetes, etc., which can cause damage to liver and kidney functions; At the same time, because the elderly take a variety of drugs for a long time, it will also cause liver and kidney function damage. Therefore, liver function and renal function test items are selected to evaluate liver and renal function, judge the degree of disease and toxic and side effects of drugs to guide clinical treatment.
The elderly are prone to heart diseases, such as coronary heart disease, arrhythmia, cardiomyopathy, myocardial infarction, and autonomic (vegetative) nerve dysfunction and metabolic disorder, which will lead to ECG abnormalities. Because some elderly people have atypical clinical manifestations, they can find abnormal heart problems early through ECG examination; Because the ECG monitoring method is simple, easy and non-invasive, therefore, ECG detection is selected as an auxiliary examination item for elderly health examination.
Fasting blood glucose
Fasting blood glucose is the main indicator for diagnosis of diabetes. Detection of fasting blood glucose in the elderly can detect diabetes early, continue to standardize management and treatment, reduce complications, reduce disability rate, extend life and improve quality of life. Therefore, in the physical examination of the elderly, fasting blood glucose test is selected.
Dyslipidemia is an important risk factor of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Due to the decline of metabolic function in the elderly, it is more likely to have abnormal blood lipids and cause arteriosclerosis. Coronary artery sclerosis leads to coronary heart disease; Cerebral arteriosclerosis can lead to stroke (stroke); Renal arteriosclerosis can lead to renal insufficiency and secondary hypertension. Therefore, the elderly choose to have blood lipid examination in their physical examination. Through the detection of blood lipid, we can find abnormal blood lipid and treat it in time to prevent cardio-cerebrovascular disease. Because eating has a great impact on the results of blood fat examination, fasting examination is required.